Electric overhead traveling crane (EOT) safety guideline:-
Overhead crane operation safety
This standard will be applicable to all EOT cranes in operation or during maintenance. The subject has been addressed from the following three different aspects and adherence to the requirements evolving thereof shall ensure better control of and protection from foreseeable hazards:
Relevant Statutory Provisions, Engineering Controls to Ensure Safety, Standard Work Practices.
Fencing of Machinery (Sec 21 of factory act) –
Unless they are in such position or of such construction as to be safe to every person employed in the factory as they would be if they have securely fenced the following namely
- Every part of transmission machinery and.
- Every dangerous part of any other machinery.
- Every part of an electric generator or rotary converter.
Shall be securely fenced by safeguards of substantial construction which shall be constantly maintained and kept in position while the parts of machinery they are fencing are in motion or in use.
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Work on or near machinery in motion (Sec 22 of factory act) –
Where in any factory, it becomes necessary to examine any part of machinery referred to in Sec (21) of factory act while the machinery is in motion, such examination or operation shall be made or carried out only by a specially trained and qualified adult male worker wearing tight-fitting clothing whose name has been recorded in the register prescribed in this behalf.
No woman or young person shall be allowed to clear, lubricate or adjust any part of any machine if the cleaning, lubrication or adjustment thereof would expose the woman or young person to risk of injury from any moving part either of that machine or any other adjacent machinery.
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Lifting machines, chains, ropes, and lifting tackles (Sec 29 of factory act):-
(A). All parts including the working gear, whether fixed or movable of every lifting machine and every chain rope or lifting tackle shall be:
- Thoroughly examined by a competent person at least once in every period of 12 months or at such interval as the Chief Inspector may specify in writing and a register shall be kept containing the prescribed particulars of every such examination.
- Properly maintained.
- of good construction, sound material, and adequate strength and free from defects.
(B). While any person is employed or working on or near the wheel track of a traveling crane in any place, where he would be liable to be struck by the crane, effective measures shall be taken to ensure that the crane does not approach within six meters of that place.
(C). No lifting machine and no chain rope or lifting tackle shall, except for the purpose of test, be loaded beyond the safe working load (SWL) which shall be plainly marked thereon together with an identification mark and duly entered in the prescribed register and where this is not practicable, a table showing the safe working loads of every kind and size of lifting machine or chain rope or lifting tackle shall be displayed in prominent positions in the premises.
Overhead crane operation
- Safety switches, preferably of lockable push-button type shall be provided on four corners of the crane near the ladder so that it can be operated either from Gantry or from the bridge platform. In addition, one such switch shall be provided in the operator’s cabin also.
- The identification number and SWL (safe workload) to be painted in bold letters on the crane itself in such size and clarity that it is easily visible, readable from Floor Level.
- One portable CO2 fire extinguisher of suitable capacity is to be kept in the crane operator’s cabin.
- Panel nomenclature to be painted on the outer side of individual panel doors and all circuit components to be adequately labeled and all control cables properly ferruled to facilitate correct identification.
- Sufficient light shall be hung from the girder of the crane so that the working area under the crane is properly illuminated.
- An audible warning device shall be provided in the operator’s cabin to warn people working below while operating the crane.
- There shall be at least two plug points of voltage 220 AC and 24 volts ac respectively fitted in the crane girder to facilitate during maintenance work.
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Floors, stairs, and means of access (Sec 32 of Factory act): –
In every factory, all floors, steps, stairs, passages, and gangways shall be of sound construction and properly maintained and shall be kept free from obstructions and substances likely to cause persons to slip and where it is necessary to ensure safety, steps, stairs, passages, and gangways shall be provided with substantial handrails.
When any person has to work at a height from where he is likely to fall, the provision shall be made, so far as reasonably practicable, by fencing or otherwise to ensure the safety of the person so working.
STANDARD WORK PRACTICES FOR EOT CRANE:-
Overhead crane operation
- When taking over the crane, the crane operator shall ensure that all local safety rules relating to the use of cranes are being observed. The following inspection / operational checks shall be carried out by the crane operator to ensure that the crane is in safe working condition:
- Are all guards fitted?
- Is the hoist mechanism working?
- Is a warning device in order?
- Is emergency stop operable?
- Are crane lights in order?
- Are ropes free from damage?
- Is the fire extinguisher fitted?
- Are walkways free from loose
- The condition of the cabin? objects?
- Is the hoist brake in order?
- Only the designated crane operator or a specially trained and authorized person having sufficient knowledge and skill regarding the safe operation of various mechanisms of the crane shall be allowed to operate a crane.
- Before the maintenance work on a crane is taken up, the group in-charge shall inform the operation shift in-charge regarding the nature and duration of work.
- The crane which is to be shut down for maintenance and repair shall be brought to the repair bay or to the repair platform or to any other suitable place where the crane may be shut down for maintenance with the least interference to other cranes.
- When the crane is brought to the required place, the group in-charge of maintenance shall arrange for necessary power shut down in relation to the nature of repair work and place of repair work on the crane.
- When power has been shut down as required, the isolation switch/switches shall be locked and tagged and the keys are to be kept with the group in-charge for maintenance. The power rails in the repair bay shall be adequately earthed.
- In case of end EOT crane rail, stops (scotch blocks) shall be placed on the runway rails on the required side at a distance of 6 meters from the crane. In case of a middle crane, rail stops shall be fixed on both sides 6 meters away from the crane.
- Crane operators on the adjacent cranes shall be notified by the group in-charge about the work to be done on the crane under shutdown and about the places of the rail stops.
- A red flag during day time and a red lamp during night shall be hung from the center of the crane on the required side (both sides if it is a middle crane) to draw the attention of the adjacent crane operator. The ground area below the crane shall be cordoned off and red flags during the day and red lamps during nights shall be exhibited to warn men on the floor.
- The use of scaffolding on the crane for repair maintenance work shall be prohibited except for location not otherwise possible.
- Persons deployed on the crane during maintenance or supervision should have secured foothold while at work and must guard themselves against tripping, slipping or getting unbalanced. They must make use of a full-body harness with double lanyard wherever necessary. The group in-charge shall brief this to all persons before the start of work.
- When the work is completed, the red flags and the lamps on the crane and on the ground and the rail stops shall be removed and all men must leave the crane. Then the group in-charge of maintenance shall remove the danger boards from the isolating switches, unlock them and ask the operator to take over the crane. The crane operators of the adjacent cranes and shop foremen shall also be informed of the completion of the work.
- Before the job is declared complete, the in-charge of the repairmen must inspect the crane thoroughly and satisfy himself that everything is all right.
- The work shall not be considered complete unless all the safety guards and other safety devices are back in position and spillage of oil or grease, oily rags, and other refuge removed from the crane.
- On completion of the maintenance of an EOT crane, all loose items, tools, and equipment shall be removed from the crane or securely fixed or stored in a secured container.
- Care shall be taken to ensure that no tools or loose parts fall down. The material from above shall not be thrown down or it shall be lowered down to the selected place.
- If the crane under repair is to be shunted then the supervisor wanting such an operation must inform the group in charge of the maintenance so that he can arrange to remove the rail stocks and his men from dangerous positions and move to a safe and secure place before the shunting is done.
- Before any work is commenced and men are sent over the crane the group in-charge shall make sure that all necessary safety precautions have been taken.
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