- Operators should be well trained for machine operation.
- Trained supervision should be provided.
- Safe work procedures should be followed to avoid short-cuts and chance taking.
- Dangerous parts must be properly guarded.
- New machine, equipment or tool should be inspected before use.
- Running machine should not be left unattended. It should be shut down in a safe mode. Off switch should have locking device. Machine under repair should have tagging and warning notice.
- Operators should not wear loose-fitting clothing, loose sleeves, neckties and metal jewelry. They should not lean over rotating parts.
- Operators should wear eye and head protection they should run the machine at proper speed.
- Gagging, calipering and manual adjustment should not be carried out while machine in motion.
- compressed air should not be used to blow chips from machine or clothing. If it is to be used, nozzle air pressure should be less than 20 psi.
- Proper hand tools should be used and job should be properly fitted in the machine, Constant watch for proper machining is necessary.
- Planned maintenance system (PMS) includes post inspection repairs, routine servicing and overhauling, periodical inspections and scheduled repairs. A widely used PMS cycle is GIRIRIMIRIRIMIRIRIG where G, I, R & M indicate general overhaul, inspection, routine repair and medium repair.
- Open hands should not be used to clean scraps and chips. Brushes, vacuum cleaner or special equipment should be used for that purpose.
Selection and care of cutting Tools:-
Cutting tools are fitted to machine tools for required operations on the job. Selection of a right machine and right cutting tools for the job is essential. From a variety of lathes single or multi operation, turret, spinning, screwing etc. a particular one is to be selected depending on the type of operation to be carried out.
Similarly selection of a drill for small holes, boring machine for big holes, planning machine for a big sized and heavy job, slotting or shaping machine for small jobs, metal saw or gear cutter milling machine for specific work, internal, external or centreless grinding machine and selection of buffing or polishing machine need special knowledge and experience.
cutting should be stored and used carefully. Their sharp edge is to be protected to avoid injuries and sharpened for easy cutting. A tool rack should be provided for classification, easy placement and preservation. Tools store area should be dry and protected from raining, fumes, gases and other chemical effects it should be well ventilated and lighted. Proper stools or ladders should be provided to prevented fall of tools while putting or taking from the racks. Passageways should be more than a meter wide.
While fitting the cutting tool to a machine, necessary hand tool or equipment should be used. Chucks and fixtures should be properly positioned and tightened. Alignment of tool center is important. Tool guard is necessary to prevent injury in case of its breakage. Cutting tools should be regularly inspected for defects, dressed for proper cutting angle and sharpness of the edge. Broken and unsafe tools should not be used. Tools and tip metal should be properly selected.