Modern Methods of Programming

Methods of Programming
software programmes are being developed and used for specific purposes

Such methods use computer as basic tool and software of required programmes. Therefore various software programmes are being developed and used for specific purposes.

Storing and Retrieval of Information: 

Introduction of a computer is not much required for the modern generation, as it is taught t them from their early school-days. Therefore only a brief outline is given here. Main three visible parts of a computer are its monitor (or vision screen, also known as VDU i.e. Visual Display Unit), printer and keyboard. Central Processing Unit (CPU) is its internal part or brain that governs or controls all the work the computer does. Hardware consists of all physical components including monitor, printer, keyboard, CPU and everything else that can be touched. Software is the instructions (programs) a computer needs to run the hardware i.e. the function as a word processor, data base manager, spreadsheet etc. A floppy disk, Zip, CD and-pen drive store computer programs and data and can be read through a floppy or CD drive. Hard disk stores permanent memory until erased or replaced. Graphics is a display of information in picture form. File is a collection of information stored on a disk. Programming means the process of providing a series of instruction to the CPU to get the desired actions. The main computer functions are input, output, and storage and processing, CD writers are used to write a CD.

Information Technology (IT) and microchip have changed the world and accelerated the use of MIS. Silicon is the main element to manufacture microchip. PCB, microchip and microprocessor are working like brain and heart for information. They have reduced the size of document, equipment, stationary and files and are capable of doing many functions automatically.

Computer can store, process, change and print tremendous information. Capacity of storing is day by day increasing. Floppy, Zip, CD, VCD, Pen drive, Server etc. are the examples of progress. Hard disk capacity is also increasing. E-mail and V-mail transforms this stored information very fast. They connect all departments of a factory, all offices of a State or Nation and all countries in the world. Storing and presenting of MIS has become very fast and very easy. Laptop and palmtop are very handy. Handwriting is being replaced by keyboard writing. Correspondence and examination through keyboard have become a part of modern culture. Volumes of books and libraries have been reduced to small CDs. Here โ€˜retrievalโ€™ means taking back, finding or extracting information stored in a computer. Any information can be directly fed to the CPU or it can be copied by inserting floppy dices, CD or pen drive or through an internet. Such information stored in CPU can be recovered by a floppy or CD drive. Such information can also be modified, corrected, altered or added. Thus computer is useful in retrieving much information as per requirement. It saves too much time, labor and volume of work.

Computer Application and Use: 

Manifold use of computers for safely, health and environment is as under:

  1. As its general use in science and engineering, computers are used for mathematical and statistical calculations, graphics, documentation, typing, printing, indexing, searching for literature, data reduction, recording and maintenance of data, control of automated production lines (CAD, Computer Aided Design, CAM, Computer Aided Manufacturing and DCS process control) etc.
  2. Automation of information paths and use of Safety Internet System.
  3. Process control in plants and laboratories.
  4. Accident and medical records.
  5. Costing of accidents and losses.
  6. Causation analysis of accidents or hazardous events
  7. Signal analysis and medical decision making, e.g. ECG analysis and diagnosis of heart problems, sonography, scanning, surgery etc.
  8. Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, screening, examinations of ill population and comparison of their data with the healthy population for early diagnosis of diseases.
  9. Maintaining a long-time qualitative quantitative record of chemical exposure workers.
  10. Maintaining environmental sampling measurement data. Using for gas diesel models and mathematical models for reliability engineering.
  11. Preparing and maintaining pen statements of accidents, injuries, causation break-ups, compensation and other costing aid cases, near miss cases, safety training, of compliance etc.
  12. Safety reports, manuals, procedures, points, mutual aid systems and emergency items can be quickly stored, update reproduced.
  13. Maintaining information of won conditions, engineering controls, fire and gas leak controls, administrative controls, n controls, personal protective equipment their selection, training programmes etc.
  14. Maintaining employee demographics a: histories.
  15. Scheduling of inspections, surveys, me workplace monitoring, biological monitoring condition monitoring, corrosion monitoring maintenance programmes etc.
  16. Reporting at any time to internal management or external statutory authorities or agencies.
  17. Keeping records of Material Safety Data Indian Standards, Statutory Provision Forms, and Reports for Pollution Control Board.
  18. Statistical analysis by using ready-made designed software.
  19. Using robots, auto-controls and safety-devices avoid accidents to persons and property.
  20. Simulations to determine where ha reductions would be more effective an change in failure probability that would Useful to carry out hazard analyses, fault tree analysis etc.

The special use of computers in addition general benefits of software (Expertise, Up-to information and Improved management) 13 for Accident recording and analysis, Information chemical hazards, Audit recording and analysis Data on such points are as under:

  1. Automatic printing of statutory and other safety forms.
  2. Automatic generation of periodical report.
  3. Analysis of near misses in the same details injury accidents.
  4. Multiple records of injury, property and v damage from the same incident.
  5. Linked incident costing so that reports automatically include details of the involved.
  6. Automatic summaries and their graphical displays.
  7. On-line computing using own computer to contact the library or publisherโ€™s computer to obtain and read off the information required.
  8. CD-ROM (Compact Disc Read Only Memory) and player for the computer and special software on chemical hazards and control technology. The information from the disc is displayed on the computer screen. Conversely, information in the computer can be copied on CD by using CD writer.
  9. Use of floppy discs, CD and Pen drive to read off the information.
  10. Database from CAMEO, COSHFL APELL etc. and onsite and offsite emergency plans.
  11. Safety audit and environmental audit details by using a set of audit questions (also known as audit protocol).

Such audit software packages include: 

  • The ability to edit the audit questions and add audit questions as new risks are identified.
  • The ability to add guidance for the auditors to Specific questions, including details of any relevant standards.
  • Displaying two or more sets of audit results on the screen at a time and to compare them.
  • Graphical display of audit summaries.
  • Automatic generation of audit reports, including action plans.
  • Diary facilities to assist in managing an audit schedule and keeping track of recommendations for remedial action.

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