Occupational health hazards.

Workplace safety and hazard
The work area temperature, the amount and quality of light and levels of noise are common working condition factors found in all workplaces.


Occupational health and hygiene

Health of the worker is influenced by the following factors:-

1- Occupational factors ( work Environment )

2- Non-Occupational factors ( food, clothing, water, housing,diet habits, personal habits like smoking, alcohol consumption etc.) Interactionof the worker with his working environment may result in impairment of his healthleading to work related illness also known as occupation diseases.

The hazards in working environment can be classified broadlyas follows:

The hazards in working environment can be classified broadly as follows:
Biological (infectious and parasitic agents)
Occupational health hazards
  • Physical
  • Chemical
  • Biological (infectious and parasiticagents)
  • Social

Occupational Hazards Associated with work Environment

Physical- workplaceclimate, Lighting and Noise

Working conditions:

The work area temperature, the amount and quality of light and levels of noise are common working condition factors found in all workplaces.

The workplace climate:

The climate is the condition of the environment surrounding us. It can mean the general conditions in a geographical area, the local atmospheric conditions in a specific work place.

Atmospheric Pollution

Air- Borne Particles

There are many substances at our workplaces as pollutant which are suspended in the air in the form of particles. The body can rejector filter out the large particles through the nose and the mucous membrane (thin tissue) of the respiratory tract which catch many of the particles. Theyare either coughed up or swallowed. The lungs also contain cells which to some extent remove particles that are inhaled.

The ability of the body to render inhaled particles harmless depend upon:

The size of the particles

The nature of the particles

The quantity of the particles

The time spend in that workplace.

The smaller the particles are, the further into the lungs they reach. Some dust can even enter as the tiny air spaces which make up the air sacs, thousands of which form a lung.

The chemical compositions of the substance is also of great importance. Particles of some metals or metal alloys can damage thebody’s internal organs. Some examples are lead, manganese and chromium.


Dust, fumes and smoke are the most common types of air-borne particles found in workplaces. They are formed when working with different materials. Inhaled dust accumulates in the lungs and causes a tissue reaction. This lungs disease is called “ Pneumoconiosis". It is still the most common incapacitating occupational disease.


Many gases and vapors have a sharp or irritating smell. This smell is an early warning signal. The gases which do not give a warning signal or which rapidly reduce our ability to realize or assess the danger are even more dangerous. Gases may spread into the workplace air through various chemical processes or through from gas cylinders. Other irritant gases are phosgene and the nitrous gases. They do not provide a warning signal in the formof irritation when breathing. Phosgene is formed when e.g. trichloroethylene or tetrachloroethylene come into contact with hit surfaces or naked flame. Nitrous gases are formed when the oxygen and nitrogen in the air heated intensely, as in welding. Carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulphide and radon are examples of gaseswhich effect the internal organs. Carbon monoxide is a colourless and odourlessgas which combines with the oxygen –carrying elements of our blood faster thanoxygen can. Exposures to certain levels of carbon monoxide may result in acutemedical conditions and death.

1. Other harmful substances.

Arsenic and it’s compounds, phosphorus and it’s compounds, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, manganese, nickel, cobalt, osmium, platinum, selenium, delirium, vanadium.

2. Aromatic carbon compounds

Benzene, hexachloro benzene, toluene di-isocyanate, phenol, penta chloro phenol, quinone and hydro quinone. Aromatic nitro, amino and pyridium derivatives.

3. Aliphatic carbon compounds

They are alcohol, Nitro-glycerine, Nitrocellulose, Dimethyl nitrosamine, Halogenated Hydrocarbons. The glycol group. Acrylonitrile, Acrylamide, Vinyl chloride workplaces etc.

4. Noxious Gases Classification

A. Simple asphyxiants: N2, CH4, CO2 etc.

B. Chemical asphyxiants: CO, H2S, HCN etc.

C. Irritant Gases: NH3, SO2, NO2, CI2,COCI2, etc.

D. Systemic poison: CS2, Nickel Corbonyl, phosphine ,Stibine etc.5.Dusts

List of Occupational Notifiable Diseases


  1. Respected sir
    I would like to thank for regular post HSE information by email but I have one issues please help me

    How to make HSE improvement plan

    Noor Alam

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