In recent years, environmental issues have become increasingly important, so it is only a natural progression that the construction industry should address these matters. This section covers the environmental implications of construction site activities and indicates problem which contractors and designers may need to address.
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The environmental plan provides an essential link between predicted impacts and mitigation measures during implementation and operational activities. EMP outlines the mitigation, monitoring and institutional measures to be taken during construction to avoid or control adverse environmental impacts, and the actions needed to implement these measures.
HSED –Health safety & Environment Department
EMP – Environmental Management Plan
EIA – Environment Impact Assessment
BOD – Biological Oxygen Demand
COD – Chemical oxygen demand
- Project HSE Procedure
- Waste Disposal & Management Procedure
- HSE Policy Statement
- Environment protection rules, 1986 (amended2006)
- The manufacture storage & import of hazardous chemicals rules1989 (Amended 2000)
- Noise pollution (regulation & control) rules, 2000 (amended 2002)
- The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981 & Rules 1982.
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974 & Rules 1975.
- Ensure that all statutory rules & regulations to be followed to avoid damage to Environment.
- Endure the compliance of environment management plan.
- Ensure that all workers including sub-contractor shall receive training on environment management
Project HSE Lead:
- Provide environmental advice to project manager and guidance to the project team.
- Identify activities that have potential environmental impacts which are not adequately covered in environment management plan.
- Provide training to create environment awareness among all site personnel.
- Ensure the on-site implementation and compliance of all environmental procedures and issue notice in case of non-compliance to any environmental procedure.
- Ensure the timely selection of environmental monitoring agency and waste dealers and auditing of their facilities for effectively implementation of environmental procedures.
5. Environmental Issues:
Where, the impact is limited to the scale of a nation. (Water pollution, Noise pollution, Air pollution, land pollution and Impact on Biodiversity).
Where the impact is global (Global Warming, Ozone depletion, Acid rain, Deforestation and Depletion of water resources
5.3. Environmental impacts due to the construction and
1. Land pollution
2. Water pollution
3. Particulate & gaseous emission
4. Noise pollution
5. Impact due to the Solid waste disposal
6. Impact to the topography & vegetation.
6. Environmental Criteria in selecting temporary sites viz. pipe dump sites, Camp facilities:
As far as possible the identified temporary land should be:
Non cultivable Land:
Away from the settlements
Away from the surface water bodies
Away from the sensitive areas:
Away from highly polluting industries:
6.1. General Criteria to develop temporary sites:
1. Duration of storage time
3. Size of the site
4. Site operation
5. Capacity of site
6. Condition of materials
7. Equipment needed
8. Security & Signage
9. Easy Accessibility
6.2. Environmental Aspects and Mitigation Measures:
1. Inspection, Monitoring and Reporting
2. Interpret baseline environment in and around the project site, by monitoring and data collection
3. Measure / estimate sources of environmental issues.
4. Predict their impact on the baseline environmental conditions
5. List the impacts which cannot be avoided and need mitigation.
Environmental Management plan is usually considered part of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA).
|Sl no||Activity||Environmental impact||Mitigation Measures||responsibility|
|1||Site Facility / camp accommodate/ Cooking / Dining activity started||Waste generation Dry waste Food waste Hazardous waste||Proper collection, segregation & safe disposal. Maintain proper Log Register||Admin. / HSE dept.|
|2||Industrial & waste water from services||Hazard for workers &climate||Proper collection with closed network & Disposal by proper treatment with septic tank & soak pit.||Site in-charge / HSE dept.|
|3||Dust particulate due to transportation & D.G set operation.||Respiration problem||Dust suppression using water Sprinkling on roads ( If possible ,by reused water. ) Explore feasibility of vegetation Acoustics for DG set Usage of Nose Mask in dust prone areas||RCM|
|4||Heavy Earthmoving equipment/Construction Equipment using||Increase in Noise Level||Used on construction equipment. Usage of ear muff based on the parameter dB level Vs No. of Hours exposure||RCM|
|5||Various Construction activities started on full swing.||Construction waste contaminated with soil& also waste appears poor housekeeping or bad aquatic condition.||Reuses of construction waste with proper storage at stacking yard & scrap resoled in seconded market. Making proper housekeeping at site by proper team.||RCM & HSE|
7.0 Worksite Analysis:
A worksite analysis, Construction hygienist measure and identifies exposures, problem task, and risks. The most effective worksite analysis includes all jobs, operations, and work activities.
The Construction hygienist inspects monitors or analyses the particular hazards at the worksite that may affect the worker health. If the situation hazardous to health is discovered, the construction hygienist recommends the appropriate correct action.
8. Air Quality Management:
Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM)
These are the particulate matters above 10 micron in size, which is present normally in suspended manner in the ambient air.
8.2. Sources of Air pollution:
Dust generation due to the
1. Wind and vehicular movement
2. Loading and unloading activities at the material storage area
3. Drilling and blasting operation
Gaseous emission generated from:
1. Vehicle, plant & machinery operations, DG Sets
2. Cooking by LPG at the Camp facilities
3. Paint application, fuel storage areas as volatile organic compounds
8.3. Emission Control Measure:
Dust Control Measure:
1. Periodic Sprinkling of Water
2. Wind breaks barrier
3. Soil Stabilization
Speed limit for all project vehicles in construction site shall comply with current rules and regulations
Low sulphur content diesel shall be used, if available in the local market.
Low emission explosives.
Proper arrangement for disposal of fumes generated from Machinery / Power
Generators through filtration system
8.4. Air Composition:
NITROGEN (N2) – 78.09 %
OXGEN (O2) – 20.94 %
ARGON (AR) – 0.93 %
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) – 0.0318 %
8.5. Air Quality Monitoring:
Unit of SPM is microgram per standard cubic meter
The weight of solid particles / volume of air
Air quality shall be periodically checked and if needed mitigation measure shall be taken to ensure compliance of essential component to desired level as mentioned in 6.4.
9. Water Quality Management:
9.1. Sources of Waste water:
• Curing / casting Yard
• Cooking / Dining
• Vehicles wash area / workshop activities
9.2. Collection of Waste water:
The entire waste water generated shall be effectively collected before the treatment.
During the collection process, there shall be no leakage or overflow.
Waste water shall be preferably collected in the closed pipes or lined drains rather than open drain According to the acceptable level of Local Environment Authority (RPCB / GPCB).
9.2.1. Strategy for treatment system:
Waste water generated shall be collected and treated at a common place
The treated waste water shall meet the requirements specified by the SPCB
(State pollution control Board) depending on the type of discharge such as inland surface water, public sewers, Land for irrigation or marine coastal areas
9.2.2. Management of Cooking / Dining Waste water:
Collect all the leftover food particles in separate bins.
Wash food grains in a separate container and not directly in the sink to prevent the slippage
Wipe out all the oil pans using paper or cloth to reduce the oil concentration in the waste water
Collect the left out cooked oil separately and dispose off to the approved recycler.
Stages of washing dishes shall be followed.
Biodegradable detergent shall be used to wash utensils.
Water conservation taps available in local market shall be fitted in dishwashing sink and wash basin.
9.3. Management of wastewater form curing /casting yard:
1. Optimize the water requirement for curing
2. Curing water runoff shall be away from water bodies.
3. Curing yard overflow water shall be collected in a tank through lined open or closed drains
4. Reuse the collected curing water. Fresh water shall be added only for loss.
9.4. Method of Waste water Treatment:
The following methods of treatment are adapted to clean the waste water from
Domestic waste and industrial waste
2. Primary clarification
3. Biological treatment if BOD, COD if present
4. Final clarification
9.4.1. Management of waste water from workshop activities:
Install an oil separator in vehicle wash area.
The cleaning and degreasing of vehicles and components must be carried out in a designated wash bay.
The sludge / waste settled in the oil separator and the associated treatment system shall be managed as per hazardous waste management
All the spillage or Leakages from the plants, machineries and vehicles shall be cleaned with the absorbent in localized area
Toilets shall be away from storm drain and surface water.
Construct appropriate oil separation tank with oil skimming arrangement
9.5. Water Quality Monitoring:
Colour, odour, turbidity, suspended solids etc.
Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD)
Chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Nitrate (NO3 )
Water at various locations, especially in Camps, shall undergo periodic test.
Nevertheless portable water shall be supplied through Aqua Guard Filters.
10. Noise Quality Management:
Noise: Unwanted level of Sound
Sound: Any change in pressure that can be detected by the ear. Sound occurs in any medium that has mass and elasticity. It occurs as elastic waves that cross over above and below a line representing atmospheric pressure
10.2. Noise Control Measure:
The permitted sound pressure level versus duration of exposure is given in the table below:
|Sl. No||Sound Pressure level In dBA||Permissible duration in Hrs.|
Exposure to noise level than specified above, following precaution to be followed:
Providing warning signs in the noise hazard areas (exceeding 85 dBA)
Isolating noisy activities from quieter ones, e.g. Concrete compressors, pumps and Generators in screened off areas or away from the work to be carried out,
Rotation of worker to minimize exposure period
Treatment of noise requires modifications, partial redesign or replacing of noise emitting object.
providing suitable PPE in terms of ear Muff
Periodic check shall be carried out for Noise levels for Noise making equipment’s and necessary maintenance shall be carried out to bring down the noise level as per manufacturer recommendation. Noisy equipment / area shall be provided with signage.
11. Land Pollution
11.1. Sources of Land Pollution
|Sewage sludge||Improper sanitation system causes sludge to leak at surrounding soil.|
|Demolition and construction||Non-biodegradable which are not cleared settled in the soil undergo chemical reaction and increase soil toxicity Oil, paint, other chemicals spillage due to miss-handling and keeping / storing on a unpaved area.|
Burning shall not be done on the Site unless specified in other sections Controlled fires shall be confined to a closed area / vessel, guarded at all times.
Burning shall completely reduce the materials to ashes.
12. Spill Control:
12.1. Sources of Spill
Storage areas for potentially hazardous waste and damage potential from construction
Leaching arising from the surface run-off around temporary stockpiles of materials (e.g. contaminated soil)
Drip of oil from plant & Machinery.
12.2. Spill response
Regular inspections and training would be conducted to enable early detection of oil / gaseous spill. The gaseous / oil spill as and when observed would be immediately informed to the higher authorities at the site and shall be impeded to ensure risk free environment.
12.3. Spill Clean – UP
The hazardous waste shall be kept in a suitably labelled, leak proof container and stored in an appropriate location for subsequent disposal.
Contaminated soils and used clean-up materials shall be treated as hazardous waste and be disposed of accordingly at the designated disposal site.
13. Handling of hazardous materials:
13.1. Handling, Storing and disposal of Hazardous Materials
When any hazardous substance is procured, used, stored, or disposed, (Material Safety Data Sheet) MSDS for the substances shall be made available at the worksite, incorporating in the hazard analysis for the activities.
The material which in use and will be followed in the use, storage, and disposal of the material, the selection of hazard control and emergency response measures, should be made known to the user.
All employees using, storing, or disposing of hazardous substances shall receive training in the information contained in the MSDS for the substance and any general safety and health instruction required.
Transportation, use, storage, and disposal of hazardous substances shall bounder the supervision of a qualified person as per the statuary requirement.
13.2. Collection and Transportation of hazardous Waste:
Transportation, use, and storage of hazardous substances shall be planned and controlled to prevent contamination to people and environment.
Disposal of surplus or excess materials and containers shall be done in a manner that will not contaminate or pollute the environment and in accordance with the local regulations and guidelines.
Every hazardous substance being transported for disposal shall be transported with a copy of the substance’s MSDS. Appropriate fire prevention & extinguishing measures shall be taken at combustible material dump yards.
14.0. Chemicals and Chemical Wastes:
Chemicals shall be disposed in a manner that no spillage on the ground or water occurs.
Chemical waste shall be collected in corrosion resistant, compatible containers. Wastes shall be classified, managed, stored and disposed of in accordance with local laws and regulations.
14.1. Storing, Handling, using and disposal of Fuel and Lubricants:
Fuel, lubricants and oil shall be managed and stored in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.
Used lubricants and used oils which are to be discarded, shall be stored in marked corrosion-resistant containers and recycled or disposed in accordance with local laws and regulations.