Main Division of Factors affecting Work:
The main factors affecting work performance or influencing actions of people are broadly divided as:
- Environmental factors.
- Human factors.
The environmental factors are due to (1) Physical work and (2) Physical, chemical, biological and ergonomic environment.
The physical environmental factors are:
- Heat load due to heat
- Thermal radiation
- Air changes
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The chemical factors are:
- Explosive substances
The biological factors are:
- Virus and microorganisms
The ergonomic factors are:
- Layout and design of machinery
- Workplaces and housekeeping.
The human factors are due to two aspects (1) Physiological and (2) Psychological.
The physiological factors are physiological. fitness of an individual worker estimated from his Maximum oxygen uptake capacity. Sex, Body build, Age, Muscular work. Posture, Clothing, Nutrition, Training, skill, and Occupational workload.
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The Psychological factors are Attitude, Aptitude, Frustration, Morale, Motivation, Individual differences, etc.
Industrial accidents are either due to unsafe conditions (situation or environmental factors) which include mechanical causes (unguarded machinery, defective equipment, dangerous situation, etc.), chemical causes (toxic exposure, dust, fume, fire, explosion, and variety of ill-effects due to hazardous nature of chemicals, their storage, processes, and equipment), and physical causes (physical workload, working hours, heat, light, noise, vibration and working conditions) physiological causes (Age, sex, body-build, posture, physical fitness, health, physical fatigue, nervous strain, sickness, etc.) or due to unsafe actions which include psychological causes (motivation, skill, training, carelessness, recklessness, habit, worry, emotional upsets, irresponsibility, poor attitudes, etc.).
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Generally, engineers, industrial hygienists, and safety officers try to remove unsafe conditions and a physiologist and psychologist deal with unsafe actions.
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