The concept of social accountability comes from two Sources:

  1. ILO and
  2. Article 38, 39, 41, 43 and 47 of the Constitution of India.

As mentioned in the previous post (Click Here), the doctrine of social security has a long history considering social protection, social risk, right to security and general well being or welfare of the society. ILO Conventions and Recommendations provide international guidelines for social accountability.

As the directive principle of state policy. Article 38 considers the state to secure a social order for the promotion of the welfare of the people. The state should also strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may a social order in which justice, social, economic and political, shall inform all the institutions of the national life.

Article 39 requires the state to provide equal means of livelihood to all citizens. It also requires equal pay for equal work for both men and women.

Article 41 requires the state to make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in case of unemployment, old age, sickness, and disablement.

Article 42 requires just and humane conditions of work and for maternity relief.

Article 43 imposes liability for the state to secure, by suitable legislation or economic organization or in any other way, to all workers, agricultural, industrial or otherwise, work, a living wage, conditions of work ensuring a decent standard of life.

The above articles create accountability of the state for social security.

The social accountability is considered for the state and union governments to provide legal protection and welfare facilities for organized and unorganized workers in India.

Most of the Labour Laws are for organized workers. Therefore Laws for social security are also needed for unorganized workers.

The power lies with the government and therefore it is its responsibility to provide various types of benefits to workers and the public by the necessary Act and Rules as mentioned in this chapter. For workers ESI Act and Rules, WC Act and Rules, Maternity Benefit Act and Rules, etc. are provided and for public PLI Act and Rules are provided. By virtue of these statutory provisions employers are responsible and accountable to provide the above benefits to their workers otherwise they become accountable and answerable under the above laws.

It is the duty of political parties,  social organizations (NGO) and social institutions to help the government or to provide independently social security to the workers and the public. Such benefits should be extended to the families of the workers also.


  1. Hi Sir,
    Really useful article, thank you for valuable information.

    And do you know how many construction companies are following SA 8000 in India?
    And what procedure we have to follow for achieve SA 8000 certification?

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